Creation Or Evolution? - Part
The Historical Record
Men Of Science Who Believed In Creation
idea that "creation halts human inquiry,"
and that a picture of reality starting with God "finishes
off any ideas of research," is a modern fiction.
Once again, many life-sciences have many Christian
researchers like those in the past, such as Linnaeus,
the great Swedish botanist, and his predecessor John
Ray (whose book The Wisdom of God Manifested in
the Works of Creation blocked evolutionary thought
in science for 200 years). History
is filled with the genius of men like Kepler, Galileo,
Bacon, the brilliant Isaac Newton, Pascal, and Leibnitz,
who, despite the strange silence on this aspect of
their lives from the secular researcher, all outspokenly
loved God and studied His world with joy. Darwin's
time was no exception (R. E. D. Clark; Creator
God or Cosmic Magician? Symposium on Creation, vol.
IV, pp. 117-118; Peter Master; Men of Purpose, pp. 9-20, 93-101, 114-121).
1831, when Darwin was a backslidden, 22 year-old ministerial
student starting out his five-year voyage on the "Beagle",
Michael Faraday, then 40, began a series of experiments
that demonstrated the principle of electromagnetic
induction. "Very few men," said Sir William
Bragg, "have changed the face of the world as
Faraday has done. He was one of the greatest experimental
philosophers that ever appeared in this country or
indeed in all the world. The whole world of electricity started with a simple experiment carried out in the
Royal Institute by one of the greatest scientists
of all time."
the year John Wesley died (1791), at 44 recognized
as the leading man of science and honored with a doctorate
by Oxford University, he became an elder at 50 in
the Chapel Meeting House in Paul's Alley, London,
preaching there every Sunday, often to fellow scientists.
Near his death in 1867, and holding no less than 97
unsought distinctions from international academies
of science, he said, "My worldly faculties are
slipping away day by day. Happy it is for all of us
that the true good does not lie in them. As they ebb,
may they leave us as little children trusting in the
Father of Mercies and accepting his unspeakable gift.
I bow before Him who is Lord of all." Significantly,
the principal men to follow him in constructing the
electrical age all owned the same Christ as their
Lord - Lord Kelvin (William Thompson), James Clerk
Maxwell, and Sir John Ambrose Fleming.
Kelvin's Second Law
Absolute Temperature Scale still bears Lord Kelvin's
name, but other exploits in his day, like the submarine
cable, revolutionary ship's compass and 69 other patented
brainwaves, made him a household word. He died in
1907 with over 600 published scientific papers to
his credit, 70 patented inventions and 21 honorary
degrees. Elected unanimously at 22 as Glasgow University's
youngest professor ever, he opened every lecture with
prayer. "A firm believer in creation for his
entire life he often insisted that the power to analyze,
to look for causes, was itself a creation of God.
He never ceased to look for causes, causes of causes,
and for causes of these in return. Seeking a cause
for the escape of heat from the Earth, he became in
the end a founder of geophysics and the joint discoverer
of the Second Law of Thermodynamics." He was
35 in 1859, when Darwin published his "Origin
of the Species."
he have dreamed then that the Law he helped co-discover
would today be one of the biggest headaches to Darwin's
theory? "The sheer venturesomeness of Kelvin's
speculations were possible only because of his underlying
certainty that behind everything lay the power of
the Creator God. Science, in his view, could never
lead a man to disbelieve in God." Kelvin wouldn't
buy today's notion that creation is somehow "unscientific."
When his sister in later years read to him Darwin's
early statement of "disbelief in Divine revelation
and evidence of creative design in the Universe,"
Kelvin, "unhesitatingly denounced it as utterly
apparently published his theory with much apprehension,
fearing the scorn of fellow scientists; in the first
edition of his "Origin," he prepared a line
retreat along Lamark's ideas in case his theory of
natural selection was found indefensible (Life
& Letters of Charles Darwin - Ed. Francis
Darwin, D. Appleton & Company, 1888, vol. 2, pp.
12-15). Professor C. D. Darlington was of the opinion
that Darwinism began "as a theory that could
be explained by natural selection; it ended as a theory
that evolution could be explained just as you would
like it to be explained" (Darlington: "The
Origin of Darwinism," Scientific American, 200, 5:60; May 1959, pp. 60-61).
Ambrose Fleming (inventor of the vacuum tube) was
11 when Darwin published "The Origin." Charles
Williams' YMCA and William Booth of the soon-to-be-founded
Salvation Army, had both been ministering in England
for 15 years; John's father was a pastor. A great
spiritual awakening took place that year with many
people in his father's church becoming Christians.
Although his early life was financially difficult,
John grew up to contribute some of the greatest discoveries
of his day in physics and electrical engineering.
"Busy though he was at scientific affairs, he
had another loyalty to the Friend he had found as
a young man. He began to be less quiet as a Christian
believer and to use his remarkable powers as a lecturer
in speaking about the Bible. He loved the Bible and
studied it as the Word of God. 'It contains', he said,
'the record of events quite out of line with normal
human experience and predictions - some of which have
already been remarkably fulfilled, it is, and always
has been, revered as the communication to us from
the Creator of the Universe, the Supreme and Everlasting
other men could equal his skill in completely enthralling
an audience. He was a brilliant speaker, getting popular
scientific lectures across to nonscientific audiences;
copies of his published works kept in University College
fill five volumes. He was an outspoken opponent of
Evolution theory, and could not bear to look on quietly
while an "unproven and unscientific theory was
blatantly taught as fact to the ordinary public."
From 1904, under the title "Evidence of Things
Not Seen," he lectured on the unadorned
facts about Evolution.
J. W. Swan, of Newcastle made a carbon-filament lamp,
it was further improved by Edison, who appointed Fleming
to be his chief electrician. Fleming was later also
called in by Marconi to help get his wireless telegraph
to work; progress was held up without an essential
technology that Fleming finally designed in 1904 -
the "valve" as he called it, or the vacuum
Of Darwin Meets Multiprocessor
Science-Fact Horror Movie For An Old Theory)
had been dead 33 years. He had no idea that his theories
could ever be practically tested. Charles Babbage's
"analytical engine" had failed to get off
the ground 70 years before, awaiting the very technology
that Fleming launched. It was left to John Mauchly
and J. Presper Eckert in 1946 to build the first nail
for the coffin of Darwin's time-protected theory in
ENIAC, a clanking, hardwired monstrosity weighing
30 tons that used 19,000 of these vacuum-tubes, prototypes
of the modern microchip.
of us forget how long ago Darwin lived. Born the same
year as Abe Lincoln (1809), nine years after Volta
reinvented the electric battery, it would have really
blown his circuits to see a home microcomputer, let
alone to run a CRAY-1 or a S1 Mark IIA Multiprocessor
with the capacity of eight billion operations a second.
In Darwin's day, the great salvation of his theory
was that no one could live long enough to disprove
it. For over a century the standard argument ran like
this: "Just because you can't see it working
doesn't mean it didn't; you haven't looked long enough,
so there! Given enough time and chance, anything can
happen - and probably did."
digital logic, integrated circuitry, the programmable
computer, and with it a whole new ball game. You see
it is now possible to duplicate million of years and
billions of random variations, simulate original conditions,
and accelerate possible spontaneous processes - to
practically shrink awesome numbers into months, weeks,
sometimes days or hours. Darwin's theory can be tested, today, now.
it has been. With embarrassing results. Put simply,
it doesn't work. Put bluntly, nothing else outside
of intelligent directed control does anything
more than jam test programs into chaos. This has led
to interesting shouting matches between the cyberneticists,
(those who ran the tests on the computers), and the
neo-Darwinists, and some mad scrambles for some exotic
new catalyst or concept to account for the disappointing
facts. Leave a system to itself and all you have at
the end of a long time is a bigger mess than you started
with. And new discoveries on the complexity of molecules
and the conditions necessary to create them only seem
to make the problem worse (Mathematical Challenges
to the Neo-Darwinian Interpretation of Evolution - Ed. Moorhead & Kaplan, Philadelphia: Wistar
Institute, 1967; Murray Eden: Inadequacies of Neo-Darwinian
Evolution as a Scientific Theory, p. 11; M.P.
Shutzenberger, pp. 73-75; A.E. Wilder Smith: The
Creation of Life - A Cybernetic Approach to Evolution, baker; James F. Coppedge: Evolution - Possible
or Impossible? Zondervan, 1973).
Master-law Of Nature - Entropy
Lord Kelvin and his co-discovery of the Second Law
Second Law defines that all things run down, not up.
Complex things break down; life becomes more disorganized
(look at your desk or bed). Time and Chance make things worse, not better. A field, a room, a person
left alone and unattended, fall apart. "Entropy",
(the tendency of an energy system to run down - Webster's
New World Dictionary), says Jeremy Rifkin, in applying
the law in his radical book to both economics and
politics, "is the universal master-law, and unbroken
reality written all around you."
you think about it, there are only two basic ways
to get order out of disorder:
and Time. These two factors form one
alternative. Say we start with these, nothing
and no one else. Does it help? Not a lot. Time
passing makes things fall apart, not fall together.
Both only tend to make things worse, so that really
seems to rule them both out.
- An Agent and
a degradable Energy supply. That is to say: Someone deliberately acting
on the disorder with the power to use in fixing
it up. Of course, the Agent must preexist the
system, and must be at least as complex as the
order you want in the system.
all this more simply, if you want to dig ditches,
you have to be there first, with the energy
and the tools to do it. You also have to be smarter
than the ditch!
make water (less complex) into ice (more complex)
because an agent of greater wisdom than the ice blocks (Frigidaire design team?) put
together a machine (on special at Sears)
that uses degradable energy (your astonishing
power bill!). The "randomness" was transferred
out of the water into heating air behind your fridge,
and finally you got something to put into your lemonade
- paying only for a fridge, electricity, sales tax
and commission, and your service contract when the
whole thing succumbs to the Second Law again on Tuesday
and breaks down.
is why some have made an open challenge for anyone
to prove that MACRO-evolution is scientifically possible.
Like R. G. Elmendorf, who offers a $5,000 cash reward
for anyone who can find a natural process in which
available energy, structure, and information increase with time - without requiring prior and higher energy,
structure, and information:
Evolution is here defined as a real, natural, self-caused, continuing,
uphill process - involving energy, structure, and
information - which goes from disorganized to organized,
from random to ordered, from lower to higher, from
simple to complex, from atom to amoebae, from molecules
to man. All uphill processes (photosynthesis, growth,
etc.) are local and temporary, and all require a creative
trio of prerequisites in order to operate:
- ENERGY - an appropriate outside source of energy.
CONVERSION MACHINE - a
fit structure or mechanism to use and transform
the above energy.
- INTELLIGENCE - an intelligent information and control system
to direct the machine (found only in life) (R.
G. Elmendorf - "$5,000 Reward," September
1, 1976; Bible-Science Association Western Penn.,
Bairdford, PA 15006).
Are YOU "Breaking Down"?
not put off getting right with God. Do not say to
yourself, "Give me time and I'll be okay."
Entropy contradicts you. Time will never make you
better; time only increases disorder. Are
you going to take the awful chance that you are right
and the Word of God is wrong? Some things are not
a gamble - they are suicide. The testimony of the
Universe is against you. Chance offers no safety.
Her deck is stacked in favor of the house. All that
can bring order out of disorder is greater Power and
higher Intelligence. Such is the Second Law - in physics
or in life.
1998 Winkie Pratney.
Contact at Box 876 Lindale TX 75771